Updating a sofa
Other paddings used in mass production are foam and polyester fiberfill wrap.
Some preprocessing may be necessary, as with the prematted rubberized hair, where animal hair is arranged and bonded into shape with glue.
Upholstery technically dates back to ancient Egypt, where pharoahs' tombs were furnished with comfortable appointments preserved to last a millennia.
Ancient Egyptians and their Roman contemporaries reserved such items for royalty and other social elites.
All materials are fastened with approximately 1,000 or more tacks, over 200 yd (182.8 m) of twine, and hundreds of yards of machine sewing thread. Variations on the standard sofa include modular items and sofas with special uses such as daybeds or convertible sofa beds.
Ornamental designs are not necessarily less durable, but they do not invite casual use. "Heirloom Upholstery's Introduction to Upholstery Home Course" (video and companion booklet).
Cushions are fashioned from polyurethane foam, polyester fiber, down, cotton, latex, or cotton-wrapped springs.